tv Global 3000 PBS September 16, 2016 7:30pm-8:01pm PDT
>> this week, global 3000 heads to china. a new app is creating a stir at lunchtime, bringing old favorites to the table. we find out more. in peru we look for one of the amazon's largest fish. how many are left and why do they need protecting? but first we go to russia, a country battling a huge drugs problem. nowhere on earth is more heroin consumed than here. the u.n. estimates that 4,700 tons of raw opium were produced worldwide last year. illegally. morphine is extracted from it. and that in turn is used to create 327 tons of pure heroin. a smokeable variety is also from the raw opium.
afghanistan is still the largest producer of these illegally grown plants. smugglers use the northern to bring opium and heroin into russia. and every year, at least 60,000 people die there as a result of drugs. nicolai has been an addict for ten years. like many russians, the 28 year old began taking drugs at parties. first amphetamines then heroin, now the designer drug known as "spice". it's easy to get hold of in russia. he orders it by text message. ten minutes later he's told where he can collect it. his package has been left in a hole in the wall. scoring drugs here isn't difficult. >> before, you'd have to meet someone in person. the deal would happen face to face. that was dangerous. you could be caught by the police.
it's much easier today. >> dimitri botov is all too familiar with stories like he was an addict for eleven years. now he works at the city drugs foundation in yekaterinburg. this video advertises spice. cheap ingredients from china have flooded the russian and now, thanks to the the drug is available around clock. >> this is an online shop selling drugs -- one of many. they buy the drug in large quantities and then stash small packets of it around the city where purchasers can then collect them. >> shama-shop is a play on the word shaman. "spice" is cheap compared to heroin or cocaine. and you can buy it at the click of a mouse. illegal businesses like these
are conducted through the dark net -- the hidden corners of web. dimitri and his colleague will report the site to the authorities. other anti-drug activists focus on hunting down dealers. groups have been set up in most russian cities that help police by smoking out dealers' bases. they believe the police are failing to address the problem by themselves. they name and shame dealers by posting videos of them online. a briefing at the foundation. everyone present is a former addict, including the boss andrej kabanov. heroin use has gone down in yekaterinburg. but designer drugs are on the rise. and its addicts are dangerously young. >> drug addicts used to be between 23 and 25, now they are often between 14 and 15.
there are even 9 and 6 year old kids taking drugs. >> an addict for eleven years, kabanov is proud he kicked the habit. addiction is not an incurable disease, he says, but a to be conquered. >> around the world, medication is used to help people kick their drug habit. but we do it without any tablets, which is both quicker and easier. >> cold turkey, that's how overcame his own thirteen-year addiction. now he helps other addicts get clean in the forests of yekaterinburg. here they must be entirely self-sufficient. they have to survive, without any help. roman takes us along to see for ourselves. his job is to ensure that the recovering addicts here follow strict daily routine. everyone has to do their bit.
it's like living in a collective. >> physical work is good for people. rehabilitation shouldn't be easy -- but it shouldn't be too hard either. >> arseni has made it through the first six months. he misses city life and his and children. but then, he'd rather spend one year without them, than the of his life. >> when you get here, you just want to leave. you want to get away as quickly as possible by whatever means. then, after a while, when your body starts to cleanse itself, you realize that you haven't lost everything in life. >> his drug abuse began at parties in st petersburg. >> it started with recreational drugs, then harder ones. i had problems at home. my first wife left me.
>> roman tells him to get a on. he wants lunch served on time. but then arseni discovers a secret stash. a new arrival has hidden some eggs. >> 18 eggs? now i know where all the eggs have got to. were you planning to sell them? >> embarrassed, the boy brings them out. he wanted to use the money to buy something to smoke. roman goes easy on him, because we're filming. lunch is ready. the ex-addicts have to prepare this themselves. roman makes sure everything is done properly. no one is given preferential treatment. that can lead to upset. >> we all have different opinions, but what brings us together is our addiction. you talk about it a lot and really helps.
>> he hopes to be able to sell some camera equipment in st petersburg in about six months. roman is optimistic about arseni's future. he's understood how essential is to make changes in his life. there are cameras in every roman leaves nothing to chance. right now he lives a bit like orthodox priest. but at some point he wants to get back to his old life again. he was once a shoe-maker. many in the west say "cold turkey" is too hard on recovering addicts. but he says you can only fight drugs by being tough. nikolai, however can't see any need to stop taking drugs. so far he's managed to keep his addiction secret from his employer. he has enough drugs for the few days. they've been a part of his life for a long time. >> even when i just consider
last year -- more and more people are taking drugs. mainly because it's now so easy to get hold of them. the chances of getting caught are much lower. >> authorities here are powerless to stop the spread of drugs. there are endless places to stash them in russia's major cities. >> in our global ideas series meet people involved in preserving our planet's nature and biodiversity. over 100 different species disappear globally every day. we went to peru to locate a now rare species of fish. its natural habitat is the headstreams of the amazon within the imiria conservation area. our reporter, carmen meyer, visited a group of conservationists determined to protect remaining stocks.
>> once, when i was traveling, pitched my tent and was setting up my fishing rod when i heard strange noise. when it's hunting for food, you can hear the paiche coming from a long way off. >> local fishermen have grown with stories about the paiche, one of the world's largest freshwater fish. they're heading out to natural
lagoons, the paiche's preferred habitat. in the dry season, it's an arduous journey. the trip leads along a shallow tributary of the rio ucayali in peru -- one of the amazon's headstreams. >> i was 11 the first time i a river, and i thought it was the sea. the sheer expanse of these surroundings makes you realize the scale of nature. being here makes me feel like a part of something bigger than myself, that's a feeling i only have when i'm here. >> here in the heart of the imiria conservation area, there's a meeting of representatives from regional authorities, the local fishing industry, scientists and environmentalists from the
german society for cooperation, or the "giz" they're developing strategies together with the indigenous fisherman to save the paiche from extinction without a complete ban on fishing. mutual trust is key. >> this is an important issue for locals, because they traditionally live from paiche fishing. but so far it's all been very unofficial, they haven't had permits. our goal is to make paiche fishing legal again, to make it completely above board. that way locals can adhere to a fishing plan and fish sustainably. >> also known as the arapaima, paiche stocks are dwindling. conservationists are keen to establish by how much. fish used to be in plentiful supply here.
but fishing is now banned in conservation zone. >> this is exactly what shouldn't happen. the fisherman was only showing off this catch, but in its struggle to escape it suffered heart attack. the 1-meter-70 cm long fish could have helped stocks. at night, the fishermen count stocks by listening. after sunrise, they count them when they surface to breathe. these canoes have been on the water since 3:00 in the
paiche feed on small fish, thrive in brackish water that contains dissolved oxygen. >> we hope that the water quality remains good. it musn't get contaminated. if a gold mine started dumping waste water, or if there was nearby deforestation, it would be a disaster. these are factors that would adversely affect the quality of the water. that's something we all need to take responsibility for. >> massive deforestation is no longer the only environmental problem in the amazon region -- although it's a more visible than over-fishing. the fishermen know it takes to land a good catch. they keep the markets
well-supplied. including with paiche. its firm white flesh is considered a delicacy. economic considerations need to be reconciled with the peruvian state is investing in paiche farming and research. the more scientists know about the breed, the more likely it that commercial cultivation prove successful and that wild paiche can also be protected. paiche may not be fished the breeding months of october and february when the parents are taking care of their young. these children belong to the shipibo indigenous people.
they learn about conservation school. miliagros oblitas quiroz finds playful ways of passing on knowledge which their grandparents had, but which has almost disappeared. >> the problem is that if start taking the biodiversity around them for granted again, then they won't bother protecting it. we want to show them the value of the nature they have here. >> the imiria conservation area could be the paiche's last it could also be the only way for local fishermen to secure their livelihoods. according to the new plan, only
indigenous fishermen will be legally allowed to fish paiche. but until that plan's in place, they have no choice but to let them slip through their nets. >> with a fish, you know what you're eating. today, though, we've become alienated from much of our it all began when we started preserving it. in 1810, tin cans arrived on market. in 1876, the first refrigerator refrigerator. then we had flash-frozen foods, an idea originating from the inuit. who would conserve their fish
throwing it into the icy winds. in 1930, frozen vegetables were born. then in the early 1950s, the first milk was sold in plastic packaging. shortly afterwards, frozen pizzas appeared in our stores, culinary revolution! since then, food in industrial and emerging economies has increasingly come off conveyor belts. but trends are gradually moving back to the homemade. >> it's 11:30 a.m. in beijing. nerves are frayed. it's nearly lunch time, and finding food is all that matters. whether it's take-out or eating in, the lunch break is a vital part of the workday in china. more important, some say, than any meeting. meng xun and wan qing have no
time to leave their dance studio. so they order out with an app.ed delivered by women living in neighborhood. ms. jia lives just a few away, and she receives the order. six different dishes have been ordered, all of which she'll prepare in her kitchen at home. she's been retired for eight years, not unusual in a county where women often finish at 50. >> my daughter says, i should this as long as i can. she loves my food. she is married, has her own now, and i'm alone here. that is how i am able to cook meals for others, prepare food for my customers.
so that everyone can try it. stinky tofu al la mama jia. sometimes she prepares more 40 meals a day. just as mother would make. and inexpensive, too. just 3 to 5 euros a box. most internet start-ups are located in the upmarket of wangjing park in beijing. this is where the home-cooked app was launched 18 months ago. in the beginning, the app's designers simply asked housewives in supermarkets whether they would like to cook for them. now, there are now more than 50,000 private chefs cooking dishes from their home provinces, and more than a million customers who want to eat them. >> über and air bnb are apps where individuals offer a service, and these were started in america. but as for food, no one thinks
more about it than the chinese. food is very important to us. so it's not surprising that an app, where individuals offer meals cooked in their homes, conceived in china. we're proud of it. >>lunch is served! everything is tested thoroughly from menus to hygiene to the ingredients. every day, at least ten dishes from private cooks are tested the app's founder, tan jin. >> this is always how we do it. we all come from different regions in china. so different meals are ordered and everyone can try it. this is the best part of our job. >> a key part of the app's success is beijing's army of food couriers. they deliver around the clock. but for ms. jia, it's the personal touch, she delivers food herself. on her electric scooter, she is
quick to reach her customers. >> the food is here! in the dance studio, everyone knows her. the young dancers order food from her at least once a week. ms. jia delivers good food to happy customers -- squid in garlic leaves and stinky tofu just two of the favorites. >> the developers must have had us in mind when they created this app. we have moved away, but what we order makes us feel closer to home. >> i order food from her so often, that she knows exactly how i like my food prepared. she knows that i don't like it
made with too much oil. she's just like my mother. >> a short break in the afternoon and ms. jia reads the feedback from her clients. >> the food was hot and tasty. she brought it by personally. it reminded me of the food my mother made. >> 16 years of life. global is traveling around the globe to meet teens born in the year 2000. >> i'm totally crazy about dance. >> what moves angel from the seychelles and what makes aires worth living in for join us in our series "millennium teens" and find out
trees, fruit, games, and the beach. >> and that's all from us. we're back next week with a new edition of global 3000. you can watch the program any time. and we love hearing from you. write to us at and follow us on facebook. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org.]
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